An unaccomplished dream of Two Nation Theory and today’s Pakistan
As the world has already knew that Pakistan was established on 14 August, 1947. Before this the British ruled South Asia. After about one hundred years of the British rule, both the Hindus and the Muslims of India realized that they must recover their Independence and do away with the rule of the British. In the beginning, both the Hindus and the Muslims worked together to drive the British from India. Together they formed a political party called the Indian National Congress. But soon the Muslims realized that the Hindus who were in majority in the Congress as well as in the country, would not share the fruits of Independence with them. So they formed their own political party and called it the All-India Muslim League. Many Muslim leaders, who had earlier joined the Congress party now left it and became members of the Muslim League. The Muslims being united on a common platform, under Quaid-i-Azam’s guidance and leadership, now started their struggle for an independent Muslim State to be called Pakistan. Our country ( Pakistan ) is the only country that was established based on two nation theory.
A theory which proclaimed that Muslims and Hindus of the sub-continent follow different philosophies that opposed each other. As Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said,” The purpose of getting Pakistan is to have a welfare state where we can easily implement on Islam.”
After losing the First Indian War of Independence in 1857,Sub-continent had become a British colonization. Aftermath, British began to eradicate the Muslims as they had captured the empire of a Muslim named Badar Shah Zafar ( the last Mugal of Sub-continent). That is why, they were sure that rebellions were Muslims who tired to drive them.
The partition of Bengal was headed by Viceroy Lord Curzon on October 16, 1905 which was the fundamental victory of Muslim leaders to divide the province of Bengal to the Hindu majority ” Bengal” (comprising of Western Bengal, Bihar and Odisha) and the Muslims majority ” East Bengal and Assam ” with it’s capital as Decca ( now Dhaka)
It was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898) who had made understood British that just not only Muslims were part of the 1857’s war but also other nations of the sub-continent were part of it. He was unhappy about the position of social and economic status of Muslims in Sub-continent as was declining. He said that Muslims had to bring a positive approach to British and accept their ways of education. He had played a pivotal role to bring co-operation between the Muslims and the British. He founded the school that would later become Aligarh Muslim University to educate Muslims as they were not ready to seek the language and education of the people who occupied their lands. He was the man who got the planning of Hindus dominance that were ready to rule on Muslims after perishing British colonization. Thereby, he hadn’t joined Indian National Congress which was created on December 28, 1885 and told Muslims not to become a part of it although once he was going to join it. He was the first Muslim leader who had used word ” Nation” for the Muslims of Sub-continent when he became well-known about Hindu dominance. It was the start of two nation theory. Later the acts of Hindus showed that Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was right.
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The partition of Bengal was headed by Viceroy Lord Curzon on October 16, 1905 which was the fundamental victory of Muslim leaders to divide the province of Bengal to the Hindu majority ” Bengal” (comprising of Western Bengal, Bihar and Odisha) and the Muslims majority ” East Bengal and Assam ” with it’s capital as Decca ( now Dhaka). But the cleverness of Hindu dominance couldn’t make it possible for long and reunited the Bengal in 1911. The reunion of Bengal distressed Muslims so much but couldn’t discourage them from their vision.Therefore, they soon formed a league on 30 December 1906 named All-India Muslim League which supported the Muslims of Sub-continent to birth a Muslim state based on two nation theory.
The founder of our country Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali became the part of league on October 1913. Due to the struggle of our Quaid, All-India Muslim League and Indian National Congress did a agreement called ” Lucknow Pact” in 1916 which brought about unity between Hindus and Muslims and also brought extremist and moderate leaders on the same platform. The two parties agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislation. During this agreement Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the ambassador of Hindu Muslims unity which was praised by even Hindus’ leaders like Gokhale and famous Hindus poetess Sarojini Nido. Jawaharlal Nehru ( the first Prime Minister of India ) had given ” Nehru’s report ” in 1928 which totally perished the key points of the Lucknow Pact and supported Hindus appearetly and Hindus leaders said, ” We would not let Sub-continent be divided.” This report worked as foul in fire. The response of All-India Muslim League came after a year (1929) in the form of Quaid-i-Azam’s most famous 14 points which brought a big attraction of Muslims given to protect the human rights of Muslims. The points included: Religious Liberty, Protection of provinces in majority, Segregation of Sindh, One-third Muslim minister and so on.
After a year in 1930 Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal, the poet of east, had presided over the Allahabad meeting of All-India Muslim League. On this historic occasion, he made a definite demand for a separate Muslim state in the south Asia, known as Allahabad address. In his presidential address, he quoted,” India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and believing in different religions. Their behaviour cannot be governed by a common race feeling. Thereby, European democracy cannot be applied to India. I would like to see the Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan united under a single Muslim state. The Muslims were joy to have a separate state because they fear the Hindu majority, that they believe, will not allow them to develop freely.” The Muslims awoke from their sleep as a result of Iqbal’s effort.
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Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the prominent president of All-India Muslim League in 1934.
The provincial elections of 1936-1937, which was mandated by the government of India Act 1935, emerged the Indian Congress in power in eight of the provinces except Punjab and Sindh. Later on October and November 1939, the Congress ministries resigned in protect against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow’s action of declaring India to be a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people. The Muslim League was very Happy because they hadn’t needed to bear Hindus’ rule for long. The league, which was representing the Muslims of India, met in Lahore and passed a resolution on March 23, 1940, demanding a separate Muslim state for Muslims. This resolution is now known as the ” Pakistan Resolution”.
Women like Lady Nusrat Haroom, Begum Ra’ana Liapuat Ali, Begum Shaista Ikramullah, Begum Jahan Ara Shahnawaz worked side by side with men. They informed women’s branch of Muslim League to organize women and make aware them about the politics of the country. They organised public meetings for women and addressed large gatherings. They had opened classes in their own houses to educate Muslim girls and met wives and daughters of the British officers including those of the Viceroys and made them realize that their demand was just. Finally, on August 14, 1947 (27th of Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar), Pakistan appeared in the map of the world based on Two nation theory.
You have looked that how our leaders gave sacrifices for it. But regretfully, Pakistani have failed to implement on Islam that was the base of it since established. As the world is well-known that after the partition, Bengal ( East Pakistan ) had become the part of our country but the eradication of East Pakistan by West Pakistan hadn’t made it possible for long time and complied Bangalies to separate East Pakistan from West Pakistan.
So on December 16, 1971 Bangladesh appeared in the map of the world. However, East Pakistan ( Now Bangladesh) had generated more revenue than West Pakistan and played enormous role in the Independence movement. This incident made fun of us infront of the world and showed the world that Pakistan hadn’t emerged in the map of the earth by following the Islamic philosophy. One said,” This event marks that Pakistan has neglected so-called ” Islam ” which their leaders promulgated it a Muslim state because it let it’s brother be divided.” But now, fascist and racist government of BJP against Muslims has changed the opinion of people in order to corroborate that partition of the sub-continent was the best decision ever taken by Muslim leaders. Apart from these events, we the Pakistani are behaving opposition direction of Islam. Such as Islam takes about peace, justification, Humanity, faithfulness, equality, and many more but we have ignored these guidance mostly.
We fight each other just because of religions, tribes, cultures. Injustice is common, the one who is in power free from Court or if he/she gets confinement then he/she has a prison like hotel where everything is available and the one without power is guilty if he/she does any illegal thing or not. Honor killing ( A male member of the family kills a female relative for tarnishing the family image ) is one of the destruction of human rights specially women that is generally being happened.
Still we have potential to remove all the negative actions which are forbidden by Islam. Let’s us forget past and give our best to make the present good then the future will automatically be best. As Mother Theresa said,” Yesterday is gone. Tomorrow has not yet come. We have only today. Let us begin.”
About Author: Meer Khan is freelance contributor based in Karachi. He owns interests in history, political , and social issues of Pakistan